How To Backup Your Entire Linux System Using Rsync

Backup Your Entire Linux System Using Rsync

Today, I wanted to reinstall one of my virtual machine which was running with Ubuntu 16.04 LTS server. Before reinstalling it, I tried to backup the entire system. While searching for an easiest way to do this, I found an easiest solution in Arch Linux wiki. I never thought that it was going to be that much simple. I copied my entire root (/) tree with Rsync using a single line command. Yes, it is just a one liner command. While there there so many tools to backup your systems, I find this method is super easy and convenient, at least to me. Also, this method is way better than disk cloning with dd command. Because It doesn’t matter if your hard drive is different size, or use different filesystem. This method will work in all Linux systems that have rsync installed.

In this brief tutorial, I will explain how to backup your entire Linux system using Rsync utility.

Backup Your Entire Linux System Using Rsync

First, insert your backup medium (Pend drive or External hard disk). Then find the drive letter using ‘fdisk -l’ command. In my case, my Pen drive id is /dev/sdb1. Mount your drive to any location of your choice.

sudo mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt

To backup the entire system, all you have to do is open your Terminal and run the following command as root user:

$ sudo rsync -aAXv / --exclude={"/dev/*","/proc/*","/sys/*","/tmp/*","/run/*","/mnt/*","/media/*","/lost+found"} /mnt

This command will backup the entire root ( / ) directory, excluding /dev, /proc, /sys, /tmp, /run, /mnt, /media, /lost+found directories, and save the data in /mnt folder.

Let us break down the above command and see what each argument does.

  • rsync – A fast, versatile, local and remote file-copying utility
  • -aAXv – The files are transferred in “archive” mode, which ensures that symbolic links, devices, permissions, ownerships, modification times, ACLs, and extended attributes are preserved.
  • / – Source directory
  • –exclude – Excludes the given directories from backup.
  • /mnt – It is the backup destination folder.

Please be mindful that you must exclude the destination directory, if it exists in the local system. It will avoid the an infinite loop.

Recommended Read: ExplainShell – Find What Each Part Of A Linux Command does

To restore the backup, just reverse the source and destination paths in the above command.

Please be mindful that this is suitable for local and stand-alone systems only. If your system is being actively accessed by some other systems on the network, it isn’t better solution. Because, the contents of these systems might be constantly updated every minute, and some files may change during the rsync process. Say for example, when rsync will reach the file 2, the contents of the previous file (File 1) might be changed. This will leave you with a dependency error when you will need to use that backup. In such cases, a snapshot-based backup is the better approach. Because the system will get “froze” before the backup process starts and get it “unfreeze” when the backup process finishes, so all the files are consistent.

And, that’s all. Hope this helps. If you find our guides useful, please share them on your social, professional networks, so that other users can also benefit from them. We will be keep posting more good stuffs everyday. Stay tuned with us to read awesome stuffs.



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13 Responses

  1. dzs says:

    Greetings Dear Writer!

    This article is look so useful, however I don’t know one thing or maybe I could not solve.

    If I have back up my entire system for a pendrive with rsync – in this case – , what shall I do with the system that the pendrive contains?. May I get an .iso or something else file or can I use for a ‘Live media’?

    Sorry for my bad english and my silly question. 🙂

    Best regards, Laci

    • JSawyer says:

      Hi, Laci. A bit late here!
      You can copy the files to a fresh partition and boot it; there are various guides out there for this.

  2. InvisibleInk says:

    I like to backup only my home directory, minus the hidden dot files. That way, I can get a fresh, clean start on a new distro.

    Here I’m backing up my home folder on an Ubuntu or Ubuntu-based distro to a folder named “synced-backup” on an external USB hard disk with the volume label “Seagate.”

    rsync -r -t -v –progress –delete –exclude=”.*” –exclude “.*/” -s /home/$USER/ /media/$USER/Seagate/synced-backup

  3. H0rnet says:

    Rsync is not a backup tool, instead it’s an efficient way transfer files and directories. It offers no point in time recovery options by it self. If you delete​ something on Monday you wouldn’t​ be able to restore it on Wednesday because Tuesdays backup will also remove the deleted file. You would be better off with a tools like rdiff-backup.

    • Jouni Järvinen says:

      rsync is the way you create incremental backups for instance, so saying it’s not a backup tool is wrong.

  4. Dan St.André says:

    There is a package called LuckyBackyup [ — I am not affiliated. ] that is a desktop GUI deployment of ‘rsync’ based backup and restore. It runs as two editions: one as end-user; one as root-user. If you really like ‘rsync’ for backup-recovery, I encourage you to take a look at LuckyBackup.

  5. Cesar Jimenez says:

    I modified for faster input instead of
    Just use
    important no space after comma.
    –exclude={/bak1,/cdrom,/dev,/home,/lost+found,/media,/mnt,/proc,/run,/sys,/tmp} / /bak1

  6. Captain Murphy says:

    This was very helpful, thanks!

  7. Søren Holm says:

    Remember –link-dest du allow using hardlinks for unchanged files from the previous backup.

  8. marnixava says:

    “It doesn’t matter if your hard drive is different size, or use different filesystem.”

    Au contraire. Rsync is great, but it *does* matter about the destination file system. For instance, using rsync to back up files in an ext4 file system to a FAT file system, would mean loss of file ownership and permission information. The destination file system needs to have at least the capabilities of the source file system.

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